Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences

The study of mind, brain, and behavior has grown in recent years with unprecedented speed. New avenues of approach, opened by developments in the biological and computer sciences, raise the hope that human beings, who have achieved considerable mastery over the world around them, may also come closer to an understanding of themselves. The goal of the Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences is to answer fundamental questions concerning intelligent processes and brain organization. To this end, the department focuses on four themes: molecular and cellular neuroscience, systems neuroscience, cognitive science, and computation. Several members of the department's faculty are affiliated with two major research centers: the Picower Institute for Learning and Memory and the McGovern Institute for Brain Research.

Research in cellular neuroscience deals with the biology of neurons, emphasizing the special properties of these cells as encoders, transmitters, and processors of information. Departmental researchers apply techniques of contemporary molecular and cellular biology to problems of neuronal development, structure, and function, resulting in a new understanding of the underlying basic components of the nervous system and their interactions. These studies have profound clinical implications, in part by generating a framework for the treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Primary areas of interest include the development and plasticity of neuronal morphology and connectivity, the cellular and molecular bases of behavior in simple neuronal circuits, neurochemistry, and cellular physiology.

In the area of systems neuroscience, departmental investigators use a number of new approaches ranging from computation through electrophysiology to biophysics. Of major interest are the visual and motor systems where the scientific goals are to understand transduction and encoding of sensory stimuli into nerve messages, organization and development of sensorimotor systems, processing of sensorimotor information, and the sensorimotor performance of organisms. Also of major interest is neuromodulatory regulation, where the scientific goal is to understand the effects of rewarding or stressful environments on brain circuits.

In computation and cognitive science, particularly strong interactions exist between the Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, the Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, and the Center for Biological and Computational Learning, providing new intellectual approaches in areas including vision and motor control, and biological and computer learning. Computational theories are developed and tested within the framework of neurophysiological, psychological, and other experimental approaches. In the study of vision and motor control, complementary experimental work includes single-cell and multiple-cell neurophysiological recording as well as functional brain imaging. In the area of learning, which is seen as central to intelligent behavior, departmental researchers are working to develop theories of vision, motor control, neural circuitry, and language within an experimental framework.

In cognitive science, human experimentation is combined with formal and computational analyses to understand complex intelligent processes such as language, reasoning, memory, and visual information processing. There are applications in the fields of education, artificial intelligence, human-machine interaction, and in the treatment of language, cognitive, and other disorders.

Subfields in cognitive science include psycholinguistics, comprising sentence and word processing, language acquisition, and aphasia; visual cognition, including reading, imagery, attention, and perception of complex patterns such as faces, objects, and scenes; spatial cognition; memory; and the nature and development of concepts. Another key field is the study of perception—developmental and processing approaches focus on human and machine vision, and how visual images are encoded, stored, and retrieved, with current topics that include motion analysis, stereopsis, perceptual organization, and perceptual similarity. Other research includes functional brain imaging in normal subjects as well as studies of neurologically impaired patients in an attempt to understand brain mechanisms underlying normal human sensation, perception, cognition, action, and affect.

Undergraduate Study

Bachelor of Science in Brain and Cognitive Sciences (Course 9)

Brain science and cognitive science are complementary and interactive in their research objectives. Both approaches examine perception, performance, and intervening processes in humans and animals. Central issues in the discipline include the interpretation of sensory experience; the reception, manipulation, storage, and retrieval of information within the nervous system; and the planning and execution of motor activity. Higher level functions include the development of formal and informal reasoning skills; and the structure, acquisition, use, and internal representation of human language.

The Bachelor of Science in Brain and Cognitive Sciences prepares students to pursue advanced degrees or careers in neuroscience, medicine, cognitive science, psychology, linguistics, philosophy, or aspects of artificial intelligence (particularly those aspects concerned with vision) as well as for further work in the area of efficient human-machine interaction.

Methods of inquiry in the brain and cognitive sciences are drawn from molecular, cellular, and systems neuroscience; cognitive and perceptual psychology; computer science and artificial intelligence; linguistics; philosophy of language and mind; and mathematics. The undergraduate program is designed to provide instruction in the relevant aspects of these various disciplines. The program is administered by an Undergraduate Officer and an Undergraduate Administrator, consulting as necessary with faculty members from these disciplines who also serve as advisors to majors, helping them select a coherent set of subjects from within the requirements, including a research requirement. Members of the faculty are available to guide the research.

The Brain and Cognitive Sciences (BCS) major incorporates programming and computational skills to meet the increasing demands for those skills in both graduate school and the workforce. The major offers a tiered system of subjects with enough flexibility to allow multiple avenues through the Brain and Cognitive Sciences curriculum, meeting the divergent goals of BCS students. Individual guidance regarding career goals is available from faculty and the Global Education and Career Development Office.

Minor in Brain and Cognitive Sciences

The Minor in Brain and Cognitive Sciences consists of six subjects arranged in two levels of study, intended to provide students breadth in the field as a whole and some depth in an area of specialization.

Core Subjects
9.00Introduction to Psychological Science12
9.01Introduction to Neuroscience12
9.40Introduction to Neural Computation12
Specialized Subjects36
Select any combination of three subjects from Tier 2 and/or Tier 3 of the undergraduate degree program:
Tier 2 Subjects:
Sensory Systems
Statistics for Brain and Cognitive Science
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Cognitive Neuroscience
Brain Structure and its Origins
Neural Circuits, Neuromodulatory, and Neuroendocrine Systems
Cellular Neurophysiology
Developmental Neurobiology
Animal Behavior
Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Perceptual Systems
Computational Aspects of Biological Learning
Computational Cognitive Science
Infant and Early Childhood Cognition
Tier 3 Subjects:
Disorders and Diseases of the Nervous System
Principles and Applications of Genetic Engineering for Biotechnology and Neuroscience
Current Topics in Developmental Neurobiology
Genes, Circuits, and Behavior
The Brain and Its Interface with the Body
Neuroscience of Morality
Abnormal Language
Functional MRI Investigations of the Human Brain
Total Units72

Graduate Study

The Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences offers programs of study leading to the doctoral degree in neuroscience or cognitive science. Areas of research specialization include cellular and molecular neuroscience, systems neuroscience, computation, and cognitive science. The graduate programs are designed to prepare participants to teach and to do original research.

Doctor of Philosophy

The departmental PhD program can normally be completed with four to six years of full-time work, including summers. Institute requirements for the PhD are given in the section on General Degree Requirements. Formal coursework, described below, is intended to prepare the student to pass the general examinations and do original thesis research. The written general examinations will be due in August of the second year.

All students start with a first-term intensive core subject that provides an introduction to brain and behavioral studies from the viewpoint of systems neuroscience. In the fall and/or spring term, students may choose between two core subjects: a two-term core subject covering molecular and cellular neuroscience or a one-term core subject covering cognitive science. Incoming graduate students are encouraged to take all three within the first two years of study. Further coursework will be diversified to give each individual the appropriate background for research in his or her own area.

Coursework in cellular and molecular neuroscience emphasizes the current genetic, molecular, and cellular approaches to biological systems that are necessary to generate advances in neuroscience.

Training in systems neuroscience covers neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, and neurotransmitter chemistry, concentrating on the major sensory and motor systems in the vertebrate brain. Specific ties to molecular neurobiology or computation may be emphasized, depending upon the research interests of the student.

Coursework for students in computation is intended to give both an understanding of empirical approaches to the study of the vertebrate brain and animal behavior and a theoretical background for analyzing computational aspects of biological information processing.

Candidates studying cognitive science take coursework covering such topics as language processing, language acquisition, cognitive development, natural computation, neural networks, connectionist models, and visual information processing. Students also choose seminars and coursework in linguistics, philosophy, logic, mathematics, or computer science, depending on the individual student's research program.

Graduate students begin a research apprenticeship immediately upon arrival with lab rotations in the first year, after which time advisor assignments are made based upon a match of interests. These assignments may change as a student's goals become more focused. At the end of the first year, an advisory committee of two to four faculty members is formed. This committee monitors progress and, with membership changing as necessary, evolves into the thesis committee. Thesis research normally requires 24–36 months of full-time activity after the qualifying examinations have been passed. It is expected that the research embodied in the PhD dissertation be original and significant work, publishable in scientific journals.

Financial Support

Financial assistance is provided to qualified applicants in the form of traineeships, research assistantships, teaching assistantships, and a limited number of fellowships, subject to availability of funds. Prospective students are encouraged to apply for individual fellowships such as those sponsored by the National Science Foundation and the National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate Fellowship Program to cover all or part of the cost of their education. The department's financial resources for non-US citizens are limited; international students are strongly encouraged to seek financial assistance for all or part of the cost of their education from non-MIT sources.

Inquiries

For additional information regarding teaching and research programs, contact the Academic Administrator, Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Room 46-2005, 617-253-5741, or visit the department's website.

Faculty and Teaching Staff

James DiCarlo, MD, PhD

Peter deFlorez Professor of Neuroscience

Head, Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences

Michale S. Fee, PhD

Glen V. (1946) and Phyllis F. Dorflinger Professor

Professor of Neuroscience

Associate Head for Education, Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences

Professors

Edward H. Adelson, PhD

John and Dorothy Wilson Professor of Biochemistry

Professor of Vision Science

Mark Bear, PhD

Picower Professor

Professor of Neuroscience

Emilio Bizzi, MD, PhD

Institute Professor

Professor of Brain and Cognitive Sciences

Emery N. Brown, MD, PhD

Edward Hood Taplin Professor of Medical Engineering

Professor of Computational Neuroscience

Member, Institute for Data, Systems, and Society

Core Faculty, Institute for Medical Engineering and Science

Warren M. Zapol Professor of Anaesthesia, MGH

Co-Director, Health Sciences and Technology Program

Martha Constantine-Paton, PhD

Professor of Neuroscience

Professor of Biology

Robert Desimone, PhD

Doris and Don Berkey Professor

Professor of Neuroscience

Guoping Feng, PhD

James W. (1963) and Patricia T. Poitras Professor

Professor of Neuroscience

John D. E. Gabrieli, PhD

Grover M. Hermann Professor

Professor of Cognitive Neuroscience

Core Faculty, Institute for Medical Engineering and Science

Edward A. Gibson, PhD

Professor of Cognitive Science

Ann M. Graybiel, PhD

Institute Professor

Professor of Brain and Cognitive Sciences

Susan Hockfield, PhD

President Emerita

Professor of Neuroscience

Neville Hogan, PhD

Sun Jae Professor in Mechanical Engineering

Professor of Brain and Cognitive Sciences

Alan P. Jasanoff, PhD

Professor of Biological Engineering

Professor of Nuclear Science and Engineering

Professor of Brain and Cognitive Sciences

Nancy Kanwisher, PhD

Walter A. Rosenblith Professor

Professor of Cognitive Neuroscience

J. Troy Littleton, MD, PhD

Professor of Biology

Professor of Brain and Cognitive Sciences

Earl K. Miller, PhD

Picower Professor

Professor of Neuroscience

Elly Nedivi, PhD

Professor of Neuroscience

Professor of Biology

Tomaso A. Poggio, ScD

Eugene McDermott Professor in the Brain Sciences and Human Behavior

Drazen Prelec, PhD

Digital Equipment Corp. Leaders for Global Operations Professor of Management

Professor of Marketing and Management Science

Professor of Economics

Professor of Brain and Cognitive Sciences

Rebecca R. Saxe, PhD

Professor of Cognitive Science

Gerald Edward Schneider, PhD

Professor of Neuroscience

Pawan Sinha, PhD

Professor of Vision and Computational Neuroscience

Jean-Jacques E. Slotine, PhD

Professor of Mechanical Engineering

Professor of Information Sciences

Mriganka Sur, PhD

Paul E. (1965) and Lilah Newton Professor

Professor of Neuroscience

Joshua B. Tenenbaum, PhD

Professor of Cognitive Science and Computation

Susumu Tonegawa, PhD

Picower Professor

Professor of Biology

Professor of Neuroscience

Li-Huei Tsai, PhD

Picower Professor

Professor of Neuroscience

Matthew A. Wilson, PhD

Sherman Fairchild Professor

Professor of Neuroscience

Professor of Biology

Associate Professors

Edward S. Boyden III, PhD

Associate Professor of Media Arts and Sciences

Associate Professor of Brain and Cognitive Sciences

Associate Professor of Biological Engineering

Roger Levy, PhD

Associate Professor of Brain and Cognitive Sciences

Yingxi Lin, PhD

Associate Professor of Neuroscience

Laura E. Schulz, PhD

Associate Professor of Cognitive Science

Feng Zhang, PhD

Associate Professor of Brain and Cognitive Sciences

Associate Professor of Biological Engineering

Assistant Professors

Gloria Choi, PhD

Samuel A. Goldblith Career Development Professor

Assistant Professor of Neuroscience

Kwanghun Chung, PhD

Samuel A. Goldblith Professor of Applied Biology

Assistant Professor of Chemical Engineering

Assistant Professor of Brain and Cognitive Sciences

Core Faculty, Institute for Medical Engineering and Science

Steven Flavell, PhD

Assistant Professor of Brain and Cognitive Sciences

Mark Thomas Harnett, PhD

Assistant Professor of Neuroscience

Myriam Heiman, PhD

Latham Career Development Professor

Assistant Professor of Neuroscience

Mehrdad Jazayeri, PhD

Robert A. Swanson Career Development Professor

Assistant Professor of Neuroscience

Josh McDermott, PhD

Frederick A. (1971) and Carole J. Middleton Career Development Professor

Assistant Professor of Cognitive Science

Kay Tye, PhD

Whitehead Career Development Professor

Assistant Professor of Neuroscience

Weifeng Xu, PhD

Assistant Professor of Neuroscience

Adjunct Professors

Shimon Ullman, PhD

Adjunct Professor of Brain and Cognitive Sciences

Senior Lecturers

Thomas Byrne, PhD

Senior Lecturer in Brain and Cognitive Sciences

Sonal Jhaveri, PhD

Senior Lecturer in Brain and Cognitive Sciences

Lecturers

Aida Khan, PhD

Lecturer in Brain and Cognitive Sciences

Mary Lambo, PhD

Lecturer in Brain and Cognitive Sciences

Mandana Sassanfar, PhD

Lecturer in Biology

Instructor in Brain and Cognitive Sciences

Technical Instructors

Daniel Zysman, MS

Technical Instructor in Brain and Cognitive Sciences

Research Staff

Senior Research Scientists

Rachael L. Neve, PhD

Senior Research Scientist of Brain and Cognitive Sciences

Principal Research Scientists

Ruth Rosenholtz, PhD

Principal Research Scientist of Brain and Cognitive Sciences

Research Scientists

Margaret McCaughin Kjelgaard, PhD

Research Scientist of Brain and Cognitive Sciences

Christopher Baker Lawrence, PhD

Research Scientist of Brain and Cognitive Sciences

Vikash Kumar Mansinghka, PhD

Research Scientist of Brain and Cognitive Sciences

Timothy O'Donnell, PhD

Research Scientist of Brain and Cognitive Sciences

Professors Emeriti

Alan V. Hein, PhD

Professor Emeritus of Experimental Psychology

Richard M. Held, PhD

Professor Emeritus of Experimental Psychology

Nelson Yuan-Sheng Kiang, PhD

Eaton Peabody Professor Emeritus

Professor Emeritus of Health Sciences and Technology

Professor Emeritus of Brain and Cognitive Sciences

Professor Emeritus of Physiology, HMS, MEEI

Mary C. Potter, PhD

Professor Emerita of Psychology

William G. Quinn, PhD

Professor Emeritus of Neurobiology

Professor Emeritus of Biology

Peter H. Schiller, PhD

Dorothy W. Poitras Professor Emeritus

Professor Emeritus of Medical Physiology

Kenneth Wexler, PhD

Professor Emeritus of Psychology

Professor Emeritus of Linguistics

Richard J. Wurtman, PhD

Cecil H. Green Distinguished Professor Emeritus

Professor Emeritus of Neuropharmacology

9.00 Introduction to Psychological Science

Prereq: None
U (Spring)
4-0-8 units. HASS-S

A survey of the scientific study of human nature, including how the mind works, and how the brain supports the mind. Topics include the mental and neural bases of perception, emotion, learning, memory, cognition, child development, personality, psychopathology, and social interaction. Consideration of how such knowledge relates to debates about nature and nurture, free will, consciousness, human differences, self, and society.

J. D. Gabrieli

9.01 Introduction to Neuroscience

Prereq: Physics II (GIR) or permission of instructor
U (Fall)
4-0-8 units. REST

Introduction to the mammalian nervous system, with emphasis on the structure and function of the human brain. Topics include the function of nerve cells, sensory systems, control of movement, learning and memory, and diseases of the brain.

M. Bear

9.011 Systems Neuroscience

Prereq: Permission of instructor
G (Fall)
6-0-12 units

Survey of brain and behavioral studies. Examines principles underlying the structure and function of the nervous system, with a focus on systems approaches. Topics include development of the nervous system and its connections, sensory systems of the brain, the motor system, higher cortical functions, and behavioral and cellular analyses of learning and memory. Preference to first-year graduate students in BCS.

M. Wilson, E. K. Miller

9.012 Cognitive Science

Prereq: Permission of instructor
G (Spring)
6-0-12 units

Intensive survey of cognitive science. Topics include visual perception, language, memory, cognitive architecture, learning, reasoning, decision-making, and cognitive development. Topics covered from behavioral, computational, and neural perspectives.

E. Gibson, P. Sinha, J. Tenenbaum

9.013[J] Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience Core II

Same subject as 7.68[J]
Prereq: Permission of instructor
G (Spring)
3-0-9 units

Survey and primary literature review of major areas in molecular and cellular neurobiology. Covers genetic neurotrophin signaling, adult neurogenesis, G-protein coupled receptor signaling, glia function, epigenetics, neuronal and homeostatic plasticity, neuromodulators of circuit function, and neurological/psychiatric disease mechanisms. Includes lectures and exams, and involves presentation and discussion of primary literature. 9.015[J] recommended, though the core subjects can be taken in any sequence.

G. Feng, L.-H. Tsai

9.014 Quantitative Methods and Computational Models in Neurosciences (New)

Prereq: None
G (Fall)
3-1-8 units

Provides theoretical background and practical skills needed to analyze and model neurobiological observations at the molecular, systems and cognitive levels. Develops an intuitive understanding of mathematical tools and computational techniques which students apply to analyze, visualize and model research data using MATLAB programming. Topics include linear systems and operations, dimensionality reduction (e.g., PCA), Bayesian approaches, descriptive and generative models, classification and clustering, and dynamical systems.

M. Jazayeri, D. Zysman

9.015[J] Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience Core I

Same subject as 7.65[J]
Prereq: None
G (Fall)
3-0-9 units

Survey and primary literature review of major topic areas in molecular and cellular neurobiology. Covers neurogenomics, nervous system formation, axonal pathfinding, cytoskeletal regulation, synapse formation, neurotransmitter release, and cellular neurophysiology. Includes lectures and weekly paper write-ups, together with student presentations and discussion of primary literature. A final two-page research write-up is also due at the end of the term.

J. T. Littleton, H. Sive, F. Gertler

9.04 Sensory Systems

Prereq: 9.01 or permission of instructor
Acad Year 2016-2017: Not offered
Acad Year 2017-2018: U (Spring)

3-0-9 units

Examines the neural bases of sensory perception. Focuses on physiological and anatomical studies of the mammalian nervous system as well as behavioral studies of animals and humans. Topics include visual pattern, color and depth perception, auditory responses and sound localization, olfactory and somatosensory perception.

G. Choi

9.07 Statistics for Brain and Cognitive Science

Prereq: 9.40
U (Fall)
4-0-8 units

Provides students with the basic tools for analyzing experimental data, properly interpreting statistical reports in the literature, and reasoning under uncertain situations. Topics organized around three key theories: probability, statistical, and the linear model. Probability theory covers axioms of probability, discrete and continuous probability models, law of large numbers, and the Central Limit Theorem. Statistical theory covers estimation, likelihood theory, Bayesian methods, bootstrap and other Monte Carlo methods, as well as hypothesis testing, confidence intervals, elementary design of experiments principles and goodness-of-fit. The linear model theory covers the simple regression model and the analysis of variance. Places equal emphasis on theory, data analyses, and simulation studies.

E. N. Brown

9.073[J] Statistics for Neuroscience Research

Same subject as HST.460[J]
Prereq: Permission of instructor
Acad Year 2016-2017: G (Spring)
Acad Year 2017-2018: Not offered

3-0-9 units

A survey of statistical methods for neuroscience research. Core topics include introductions to the theory of point processes, the generalized linear model, Monte Carlo methods, Bayesian methods, multivariate methods, time-series analysis, spectral analysis and state-space modeling. Emphasis on developing a firm conceptual understanding of the statistical paradigm and statistical methods primarily through analyses of actual experimental data.

E. N. Brown

9.09[J] Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology

Same subject as 7.29[J]
Prereq: 7.05 or 9.01
U (Spring)
4-0-8 units

See description under subject 7.29[J].

T. Littleton, M. Heiman

9.10 Cognitive Neuroscience

Prereq: 9.01
U (Spring)
3-0-9 units

Explores the cognitive and neural processes that support attention, vision, language, social cognition, music understanding, emotion, motor control, and memory. Begins with the fundamental behavioral phenomena, then progresses to models based on brain systems in humans and animals, and ultimately models based on populations of neurons. Includes examples of clinical conditions and case studies in patients. Students prepare presentations summarizing journal articles.

R. Desimone, E. K. Miller

9.110[J] Nonlinear Control

Same subject as 2.152[J]
Prereq: 2.151, 6.241[J], 16.31, or permission of instructor
G (Spring)
3-0-9 units

See description under subject 2.152[J].

J.-J. E. Slotine

9.12 Experimental Molecular Neurobiology

Prereq: 9.01, Biology (GIR)
U (Spring)
2-4-6 units. Institute LAB

Experimental techniques in cellular and molecular neurobiology. Designed for students without previous experience in techniques of cellular and molecular biology. Experimental approaches include DNA manipulation, molecular clonging, protein biochemistry, dissection and culture of brain cells, synaptic protein analysis, immunocytochemistry, and fluorescent microscopy. One lab session plus one paper review session per week. Instruction and practice in written communication provided. Enrollment limited.

Y. Lin, G. Choi

9.123[J] Neurotechnology in Action

Same subject as 20.203[J]
Prereq: Permission of instructor
G (Fall)
3-6-3 units

Offers a fast-paced introduction to numerous laboratory methods at the forefront of modern neurobiology. Comprises a sequence of modules focusing on neurotechnologies that are developed and used by MIT research groups. Each module consists of a background lecture and 1-2 days of firsthand laboratory experience. Topics typically include optical imaging, optogenetics, high throughput neurobiology, MRI/fMRI, advanced electrophysiology, viral and genetic tools, and connectomics.

A. Jasanoff, E. Boyden, M. Jonas

9.14 Brain Structure and its Origins

Prereq: 9.01
Acad Year 2016-2017: Not offered
Acad Year 2017-2018: U (Spring)

3-0-9 units

Provides an introduction to functional neuroanatomy with a focus on mammals, aided by studies of comparative neuroanatomy and evolution and of brain development. Topics include early steps to a central nervous system, basic patterns of brain and spinal cord connections, regional development and differentiation, regeneration, motor and sensory pathways and structures, systems underlying motivations, innate action patterns, formation of habits, and various cognitive functions. Review of lab techniques. Optional brain dissections.

G. E. Schneider

9.15 Neural Circuits, Neuromodulatory, and Neuroendocrine Systems

Prereq: 9.01 or permission of instructor
Acad Year 2016-2017: Not offered
Acad Year 2017-2018: U (Fall)

3-0-9 units

Studies how neural circuits give rise to behavior, and how neuromodulatory systems and pharmacological intervention can influence these processes. Lectures and selected publications cover the fundamentals of neuropharmacology, neuromodulatory systems, and approaches to understand circuit mechanisms. Provides a historical view of various neurotransmitter or neuromodulatory systems as well as an understanding of how research is conducted at the forefront of neuroscience today. Instruction and practice in oral and written communication provided. Students present a primary research article and also submit a research proposal which they have the opportunity to revise based on feedback.

K. Tye

9.16 Cellular Neurophysiology

Subject meets with 9.160
Prereq: 9.40
U (Fall)
3-0-9 units

Surveys the mechanisms of neuronal communication. Covers ion channels in excitable membrane, single cell computation, synaptic transmission, and synaptic plasticity. Correlates the properties of ion channels and synaptic transmission with their physiological function. Discusses the organizational principles for the formation of functional neural networks at synaptic and cellular levels. Involves discussion of primary literature. Students taking graduate version complete additional assignments.

W. Xu

9.160 Cellular Neurophysiology (New)

Subject meets with 9.16
Prereq: Permission of instructor
G (Fall)
3-0-9 units

Surveys the mechanisms of neuronal communication. Covers ion channels in excitable membrane, single cell computation, synaptic transmission, and synaptic plasticity. Correlates the properties of ion channels and synaptic transmission with their physiological function. Discusses the organizational principles for the formation of functional neural networks at synaptic and cellular levels. Involves discussion of primary literature. Students taking graduate version complete additional assignments.

W. Xu

9.17 Systems Neuroscience Laboratory

Prereq: 9.40 or permission of instructor; Coreq: 9.07
U (Fall)
2-4-6 units. Institute LAB

Consists of a series of laboratories designed to give students experience with basic techniques for conducting systems neuroscience research. Includes sessions on anatomical, neurophysiological, and data acquisition and analysis techniques, and how these techniques are used to study nervous system function. Involves the use of experimental animals. Assignments include weekly preparation for lab sessions, two major lab reports and a series of basic computer programming tutorials (MATLAB). Instruction and practice in written communication provided. Enrollment limited.

M. Wilson, M. Harnett

9.173[J] Noninvasive Imaging in Biology and Medicine

Same subject as 20.483[J], 22.56[J], HST.561[J]
Prereq: 18.03, 8.03, or permission of instructor
Acad Year 2016-2017: Not offered
Acad Year 2017-2018: G (Spring)

3-0-9 units

See description under subject 22.56[J].

A. Jasanoff

9.175[J] Robotics

Same subject as 2.165[J]
Prereq: 2.151 or permission of instructor
Acad Year 2016-2017: Not offered
Acad Year 2017-2018: G (Spring)

3-0-9 units

See description under subject 2.165[J].

J.-J. E. Slotine, H. Asada

9.18[J] Developmental Neurobiology

Same subject as 7.49[J]
Subject meets with 7.69[J], 9.181[J]

Prereq: 9.01, 7.03, 7.05, or permission of instructor
U (Spring)
3-0-9 units

9.181[J] Developmental Neurobiology

Same subject as 7.69[J]
Subject meets with 7.49[J], 9.18[J]

Prereq: 9.011 or permission of instructor
G (Spring)
3-0-9 units

Considers molecular control of neural specification, formation of neuronal connections, construction of neural systems, and the contributions of experience to shaping brain structure and function. Topics include: neural induction and pattern formation, cell lineage and fate determination, neuronal migration, axon guidance, synapse formation and stabilization, activity-dependent development and critical periods, development of behavior. In addition to final exam, analysis and presentation of research papers required for final grade. Students taking graduate version complete additional assignments. Students taking graduate version complete additional readings that will be addressed in their mid-term and final exams.

E. Nedivi, M. Heiman

9.20 Animal Behavior

Prereq: 9.00
U (Fall)
3-0-9 units. HASS-S

Reviews studies of animal behavior to stress major ideas and principles, with emphasis on concepts developed in ethology and sociobiology. Examines foraging and feeding, defensive and aggressive behavior, courtship and reproduction, migration and navigation, as well as various social activities and communication. Considers inherited abilities, motivational systems and motor patterns, together with influences of various types of learning. Reviews both field and laboratory studies, and considers human behavior in the context of primate studies.

G. E. Schneider

9.24 Disorders and Diseases of the Nervous System

Prereq: 9.00, 9.01, 9.09[J]
U (Spring)
3-0-9 units

Topics examined include regional functional anatomy of the CNS; brain systems and circuits; neurodevelopmental disorders including autism; neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia; neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's; autoimmune disorders such as multiple sclerosis; gliomas. Emphasis on diseases for which a molecular mechanism is understood. Diagnostic criteria, clinical and pathological findings, genetics, model systems, pathophysiology, and treatment are discussed for individual disorders and diseases.

M. Sur

9.26[J] Principles and Applications of Genetic Engineering for Biotechnology and Neuroscience

Same subject as 20.205[J]
Prereq: 7.28, 7.32, or 20.020; 9.01 or 9.09[J]
U (Spring)
3-0-9 units

Covers principles underlying current and future genetic engineering approaches, ranging from single cellular organisms to whole animals. Focuses on development and invention of technologies for engineering biological systems at the genomic level, and applications of engineered biological systems for medical and biotechnological needs, with particular emphasis on genetic manipulation of the nervous system. Design projects by students.

F. Zhang

9.272[J] Topics in Neural Signal Processing

Same subject as HST.576[J]
Prereq: Permission of instructor
Acad Year 2016-2017: Not offered
Acad Year 2017-2018: G (Spring)

3-0-9 units

Presents signal processing and statistical methods used to study neural systems and analyze neurophysiological data. Topics include state-space modeling formulated using the Bayesian Chapman-Kolmogorov system, theory of point processes, EM algorithm, Bayesian and sequential Monte Carlo methods. Applications include dynamic analyses of neural encoding, neural spike train decoding, studies of neural receptive field plasticity, algorithms for neural prosthetic control, EEG and MEG source localization. Students should know introductory probability theory and statistics. Alternate years.

E. N. Brown

9.28 Current Topics in Developmental Neurobiology

Prereq: None. Coreq: 9.18[J]
U (Spring)
3-0-6 units

Considers recent advances in the field of developmental neurobiology based on primary research articles that address molecular control of neural specification, formation of neuronal connections, construction of neural systems, and the contributions of experience to shaping brain structure and function. Also considers new techniques and methodologies as applied to the field. Students critically analyze articles and prepare concise and informative presentations based on their content. Instruction and practice in written and oral communication provided. Requires class participation, practice sessions, and presentations.

E. Nedivi

9.285[J] Neural Coding and Perception of Sound

Same subject as HST.723[J]
Prereq: Permission of instructor
G (Spring)
3-1-8 units

See description under subject HST.723[J].

B. Delgutte, M. C. Brown, J. McDermott, D. Polley

9.301[J] Neural Plasticity in Learning and Memory

Same subject as 7.98[J]
Prereq: Permission of instructor
G (Spring)
3-0-6 units

Examination of the role of neural plasticity during learning and memory of invertebrates and mammals. Detailed critical analysis of the current literature of molecular, cellular, genetic, electrophysiological, and behavioral studies. Student-directed presentations and discussions of original papers supplemented by introductory lectures. Juniors and seniors require instructor's permission.

S. Tonegawa, W. Quinn

9.31 Neurobiology of Learning and Memory

Prereq: 9.01
U (Fall)
4-0-8 units

Surveys the mechanisms supporting plasticity in neurons, focusing on how it contributes to learning in several systems. Examines cellular forms of associative plasticity, including long-term potentiation and depression, homeostatic plasticity, and depotentiation. Relates these phenomena to associative memory in animal systems and humans. Completion of 9.09[J] recommended.

M. Constantine-Paton

9.32 Genes, Circuits, and Behavior

Prereq: 9.09[J], 9.10, 9.16, or 9.18[J]
U (Spring)
3-0-9 units

Focuses on understanding molecular and cellular mechanisms of circuitry development, function and plasticity, and their relevance to normal and abnormal behaviors/psychiatric disorders. Highlights cutting-edge technologies for neuroscience research. Students build professional skills through presentations and critical evaluation of original research papers.

G. Feng

9.322[J] Genetic Methods in Neurobiology

Same subject as 7.67[J]
Prereq: Permission of instructor
Acad Year 2016-2017: Not offered
Acad Year 2017-2018: G (Spring)

3-0-6 units

Presents selected topics in which genetic analysis informs neurobiological issues, including action potential conduction and synaptic release in Drosophila, axon guidance in nematodes and Drosophila, olfaction and orienting behavior in nematodes. Studies hippocampal and cortical circuitry and function in mice, as well as genetically-determined and genetically-influenced human traits and diseases. Reviews methods such as mutagenesis, gene knockouts and transgene constructs, tissue-specific expression vectors, optically, chemically and thermally-inducible gene activation and inactivation.

W. G. Quinn

9.33 Your Brain: A User's Guide

Prereq: None
Acad Year 2016-2017: Not offered
Acad Year 2017-2018: U (Fall)

3-0-9 units. HASS-E

Provides students with perspective on brain functions and behaviors of particular relevance to individuals their age. Using library databases, students conduct scholarly research and compare the attitudes conveyed in magazines and newspapers with facts from neurobiology textbooks, scientific reviews, and basic research articles. Each student presents and leads a discussion on a topic related to a behavior of his or her choosing. Preference to freshmen and non-Course 9 majors; limited to 17.

M. Constantine-Paton

9.34[J] Biomechanics and Neural Control of Movement

Same subject as 2.183[J]
Subject meets with 2.184

Prereq: 2.004, 2.04A, or permission of instructor
G (Spring)
3-0-9 units

See description under subject 2.183[J].

N. Hogan

9.35 Perceptual Systems

Prereq: 9.00, 9.01; or permission of instructor
U (Spring)
4-0-8 units

Studies how the senses work and how physical stimuli are transformed into signals in the nervous system. Examines how the brain uses those signals to make inferences about the world, and uses illusions and demonstrations gain insight into those inferences. Emphasizes audition and vision, with some discussion of touch, taste, and smell. Provides experience with psychophysical methods.

J. McDermott

9.357 Current Topics in Vision Science

Prereq: Permission of instructor
G (Spring)
2-0-7 units
Can be repeated for credit.

Advanced seminar on issues of current interest in human and machine vision. Topics vary from year to year. Participants discuss current literature as well as their ongoing research.

E. H. Adelson

9.40 Introduction to Neural Computation

Prereq: 6.0002, 9.01
U (Spring)
4-0-8 units

Introduces quantitative approaches to understanding brain and cognitive functions. Topics include mathematical description of neurons, the response of neurons to sensory stimuli, simple neuronal networks, statistical inference and decision making. Also covers foundational quantitative tools of data analysis in neuroscience: correlation, convolution, spectral analysis, principal components analysis. Mathematical concepts include simple differential equations and linear algebra.

M. Fee

9.41 Research and Communication in Neuroscience and Cognitive Science

Prereq: 9.URG, permission of instructor
U (Fall)
2-12-4 units

Emphasizes research and scientific communication. Instruction and practice in written and oral communication provided. Based on results of his/her UROP research, each student creates a full-length paper and a poster as part of an oral presentation at the end of the term. Other assignments include peer editing and reading/critiquing published research papers. Prior to starting class, students must have collected enough data from their UROP research projects to write a paper. Limited to juniors and seniors.

L. Schulz

9.42 The Brain and Its Interface with the Body (New)

Prereq: 7.28, 9.09[J], or permission of instructor
U (Spring)
3-0-9 units

Covers a range of topics, such as brain-immune system interaction, the gut-brain axis, and bioengineering approaches for studying the brain and its interactions with different organs. Explores how these interactions may be involved in nervous system disease processes.

F. Zhang

9.422[J] Principles of Neuroengineering

Same subject as 20.452[J], MAS.881[J]
Subject meets with 20.352

Prereq: Permission of instructor
Acad Year 2016-2017: Not offered
Acad Year 2017-2018: G (Fall)

3-0-9 units

See description under subject MAS.881[J].

E. S. Boyden, III

9.455[J] Revolutionary Ventures: How to Invent and Deploy Transformative Technologies

Same subject as 15.128[J], 20.454[J], MAS.883[J]
Prereq: Permission of instructor
G (Fall)
2-0-7 units

See description under subject MAS.883[J].

J. Bonsen, J. Jacobson

9.46 Neuroscience of Morality

Prereq: 9.00, 9.01; 9.10, 9.20, or 9.85
U (Fall)
3-0-9 units

Advanced seminar that covers both classic and cutting-edge primary literature from psychology and the neuroscience of morality. Addresses questions about how the human brain decides which actions are morally right or wrong (including neural mechanisms of empathy and self-control), how such brain systems develop over childhood and differ across individuals and cultures, and how they are affected by brain diseases (such as psychopathy, autism, tumors, or addiction). Instruction and practice in written and oral communication provided. Limited to 24.

R. Saxe

9.48[J] Philosophical Issues in Brain Science

Same subject as 24.08[J]
Prereq: None
U (Fall)
Not offered regularly; consult department

3-0-9 units. HASS-H; CI-H

See description under subject 24.08[J].

A. Byrne

9.50 Research in Brain and Cognitive Sciences

Prereq: 9.00, permission of instructor
U (Fall, Spring)
0-12-0 units
Can be repeated for credit.

Laboratory research in brain and cognitive science, using physiological, anatomical, pharmacological, developmental, behavioral, and computational methods. Each student carries out an experimental study under the direction of a member of the faculty. Project must be approved in advance by the faculty supervisor and the Director of the Undergraduate Program. Written presentation of results is required.

Consult L. Schulz

9.520[J] Statistical Learning Theory and Applications

Same subject as 6.860[J]
Prereq: 6.867, 6.041B, 18.06, or permission of instructor
G (Fall)
3-0-9 units

Provides students with the knowledge needed to use and develop advanced machine learning solutions to challenging problems. Covers foundations and recent advances of machine learning in the framework of statistical learning theory. Focuses on regularization techniques key to high-dimensional supervised learning. Starting from classical methods such as regularization networks and support vector machines, addresses state-of-the-art techniques based on principles such as geometry or sparsity, and discusses a variety of algorithms for supervised learning, feature selection, structured prediction, and multitask learning. Also focuses on unsupervised learning of data representations, with an emphasis on hierarchical (deep) architectures.

T. Poggio, L. Rosasco

9.523[J] Aspects of a Computational Theory of Intelligence

Same subject as 6.861[J]
Prereq: Permission of instructor
G (Fall)
3-0-9 units

Integrates neuroscience, cognitive and computer science to explore the nature of intelligence, how it is produced by the brain, and how it can be replicated in machines. Discusses an array of current research connected through an overarching theme of how it contributes to a computational account of how humans analyze dynamic visual imagery to understand objects and actions in the world.

T. Poggio, S. Ullman

9.54 Computational Aspects of Biological Learning

Prereq: 9.40
Acad Year 2016-2017: Not offered
Acad Year 2017-2018: U (Fall)

3-0-9 units

Takes a computational approach to learning in the brain by neurons and synapses. Examines supervised and unsupervised learning as well as possible biological substrates, including Hebb synapses and the related topics of Oja flow and principal components analysis. Discusses hypothetical computational primitives in the nervous system, and the implications for unsupervised learning algorithms underlying the development of tuning properties of cortical neurons. Also focuses on a broad class of biologically plausible learning strategies.

T. Poggio, S. Ullman

9.56[J] Abnormal Language

Same subject as 24.907[J]
Prereq: 24.900 or permission of instructor
Acad Year 2016-2017: Not offered
Acad Year 2017-2018: U (Fall)

3-0-9 units. HASS-S

Introduction to the linguistic study of language pathology, concentrating on experimental approaches and theoretical explanations. Discussion of Specific Language Impairment, Down syndrome, William's syndrome, autism, normal aging, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, hemispherectomy, and aphasia. Focuses on the comparison of linguistic abilities among these syndromes, while drawing clear comparisons with first- and second-language acquisition. Topics include the lexicon, morphology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics. Relates the lost linguistic abilities in these syndromes to properties of the brain.

K. Wexler

9.583[J] Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Data Acquisition and Analysis

Same subject as HST.583[J]
Prereq: 18.05; 18.06 or permission of instructor
Acad Year 2016-2017: Not offered
Acad Year 2017-2018: G (Fall)

2-3-7 units

See description under subject HST.583[J].

S. Whitfield-Gabrieli, J. Polimeni, A. Yendiki

9.59[J] Laboratory in Psycholinguistics

Same subject as 24.905[J]
Prereq: 9.00 or 24.900
U (Spring)
3-3-6 units. Institute LAB

Hands-on experience designing, conducting, analyzing, and presenting experiments on the structure and processing of human language. Focuses on constructing, conducting, analyzing, and presenting an original and independent experimental project of publishable quality. Develops skills in reading and writing scientific research reports in cognitive science, including evaluating the methods section of a published paper, reading and understanding graphical displays and statistical claims about data, and evaluating theoretical claims based on experimental data. Instruction and practice in oral and written communication provided.

E. Gibson

9.601[J] Language Acquisition I

Same subject as 24.949[J]
Prereq: Permission of instructor
G (Fall)
3-0-6 units

Lectures, reading, and discussion of current theory and data concerning the psychology and biology of language acquisition. Emphasizes learning of syntax, semantics, and morphology, together with some discussion of phonology, and especially research relating grammatical theory and learnability theory to empirical studies of children.

L. Koring

9.611[J] Natural Language and the Computer Representation of Knowledge

Same subject as 6.863[J]
Prereq: 6.034
Acad Year 2016-2017: Not offered
Acad Year 2017-2018: G (Fall)

3-3-6 units

See description under subject 6.863[J].

R. C. Berwick

9.63 Laboratory in Visual Cognition

Prereq: 9.00
Acad Year 2016-2017: Not offered
Acad Year 2017-2018: U (Fall)

2-1-9 units. Institute LAB

Teaches principles of experimental methods in human visual perception and attention, including how to design, conduct, analyze, and present experiments in visual cognition. Combines lectures and hands-on experimental exercises. Requires two experimental projects, at least one of which is conducted independently; the other may be done as part of a team. Assignments include individual reports on experimental designs, written articles, and presentations critiquing three team experiments observed in class. Instruction and practice in written and oral communication provided. Experience with MATLAB is recommended. Limited to 16.

P. Sinha

9.65 Cognitive Processes

Prereq: 9.00
Acad Year 2016-2017: Not offered
Acad Year 2017-2018: U (Spring)

3-0-9 units. HASS-S

Introduction to human information processing and learning. Topics include the nature of mental representation and processing, memory and learning, pattern recognition, attention, imagery and mental codes, concepts and prototypes, as well as reasoning and problem-solving.

M. C. Potter

9.66[J] Computational Cognitive Science

Same subject as 6.804[J]
Subject meets with 9.660

Prereq: 6.008, 6.036, 6.041B, 9.40, 18.05, or permission of instructor
U (Fall)
3-0-9 units

Introduction to computational theories of human cognition. Focus on principles of inductive learning and inference, and the representation of knowledge. Computational frameworks covered include Bayesian and hierarchical Bayesian models; probabilistic graphical models; nonparametric statistical models and the Bayesian Occam's razor; sampling algorithms for approximate learning and inference; and probabilistic models defined over structured representations such as first-order logic, grammars, or relational schemas. Applications to understanding core aspects of cognition, such as concept learning and categorization, causal reasoning, theory formation, language acquisition, and social inference. Graduate students complete a final project.

J. Tenenbaum

9.660 Computational Cognitive Science

Subject meets with 6.804[J], 9.66[J]
Prereq: Permission of instructor
G (Fall)
3-0-9 units

Introduction to computational theories of human cognition. Focuses on principles of inductive learning and inference, and the representation of knowledge. Computational frameworks include Bayesian and hierarchical Bayesian models, probabilistic graphical models, nonparametric statistical models and the Bayesian Occam's razor, sampling algorithms for approximate learning and inference, and probabilistic models defined over structured representations such as first-order logic, grammars, or relational schemas. Applications to understanding core aspects of cognition, such as concept learning and categorization, causal reasoning, theory formation, language acquisition, and social inference. Graduate students complete a final project.

J. Tenenbaum

9.71 Functional MRI Investigations of the Human Brain

Prereq: 9.07, 18.05, or permission of instructor
U (Fall)
3-0-9 units

Covers design and interpretation of fMRI experiments, and the relationship between fMRI and other techniques. Focuses on localization of cognitive function in the human brain. Students write papers and give presentations, explain and critique published papers, and design but do not conduct their own fMRI experiments. Upon completion, students should be able to understand and critique published fMRI papers and have a good grasp of what is known about localization of cognitive function from fMRI. Instruction and practice in written and oral communication provided. Limited to 12.

N. G. Kanwisher

9.77 Computational Perception

Prereq: 9.00, 9.40; 9.35 or 9.65
Acad Year 2016-2017: Not offered
Acad Year 2017-2018: U (Spring)

3-0-9 units

Begins with a review of the experimental paradigms, findings and theories used to evaluate the capabilities and limits of human visual perception. Assesses how knowledge of human perception may be used to guide machine vision systems. Second part of the subject focuses on models in computational perception. Describes how computer vision systems can perform image analysis and synthesis; face, object and scene perception; texture synthesis, segmentation, and navigation. Introduces various simulation methods. A MATLAB-based project in computational perception is required. Limited to 8.

E. Adelson

9.822[J] Psychology and Economics

Same subject as 14.137[J]
Prereq: None
G (Spring)
4-0-8 units

See description under subject 14.137[J].

D. Prelec

9.85 Infant and Early Childhood Cognition

Prereq: 9.00
U (Fall)
3-0-9 units. HASS-S

Introduction to cognitive development focusing on childrens' understanding of objects, agents, and causality. Develops a critical understanding of experimental design. Discusses how developmental research might address philosophical questions about the origins of knowledge, appearance and reality, and the problem of other minds. Provides instruction and practice in written communication as necessary to research in cognitive science (including critical reviews of journal papers, a literature review and an original research proposal), as well as instruction and practice in oral communication in the form of a poster presentation of a journal paper.

L. Schulz

9.901 Responsible Conduct in Science

Prereq: None
G (IAP)
1-0-1 units

Provides instruction and dialogue on practical ethical issues relating to the responsible conduct of human and animal research in the brain and cognitive sciences. Specific emphasis on topics relevant to young researchers including data handling, animal and human subjects, misconduct, mentoring, intellectual property, and publication. Preliminary assigned readings and initial faculty lecture followed by discussion groups of four to five students each. A short written summary of the discussions submitted at the end of each class. See IAP Guide for registration information.

M. Wilson

9.91 Independent Study in Brain and Cognitive Sciences

Prereq: 9.00 and any other two subjects in Brain and Cognitive Sciences; permission of instructor
U (Fall, IAP, Spring)
Units arranged
Can be repeated for credit.

Individual study of a topic under the direction of a member of the faculty.

Consult Staff

9.919 Teaching Brain and Cognitive Sciences

Prereq: None
G (Fall, Spring)
Units arranged
Can be repeated for credit.

For teaching assistants in Brain and Cognitive Sciences, in cases where teaching assignment is approved for academic credit by the department.

Staff

9.921 Research in Brain and Cognitive Sciences

Prereq: Permission of instructor
G (Fall, Spring, Summer)
Units arranged
Can be repeated for credit.

Guided research under the sponsorship of individual members of the faculty. Ordinarily restricted to candidates for the doctoral degree in Course 9.

Staff

9.941 Graduate Thesis Proposal

Prereq: Permission of instructor
G (Fall, Spring, Summer)
Units arranged [P/D/F]
Can be repeated for credit.

Students submit written proposals for thesis according to stated deadlines.

Staff

9.95 Research Topics in Neuroscience

Prereq: None
Acad Year 2016-2017: Not offered
Acad Year 2017-2018: U (IAP)

1-0-0 units
Can be repeated for credit.

Lecture series that highlights faculty research in various fields of neuroscience. Each of the six lectures focuses on a specific area of brain research, delineating issues, methods, and findings pertinent to the topic. Exam administered during seventh and final class session. Pre-register on WebSIS; must attend first class.

P. H. Schiller

9.97 Introduction to Neuroanatomy

Prereq: None
U (IAP)
1-0-0 units

Intensive introduction to neuroanatomy that consists of lectures, demonstrations, and interactive laboratories, including a brain dissection. No prior knowledge of neuroanatomy required, although general knowledge of brain structures is helpful. Pre-register on WebSIS; must attend first class. Limited to 100.

R. Ellis-Behnke

9.S51 Special Subject in Brain and Cognitive Sciences

Prereq: 9.00 and any other two subjects in Brain and Cognitive Sciences
U (Fall, IAP, Spring)
Not offered regularly; consult department

Units arranged
Can be repeated for credit.

Undergraduate study in brain and cognitive sciences; covers material not offered in regular curriculum.

Consult Staff

9.S52 Special Subject in Brain and Cognitive Sciences

Prereq: 9.00 and any other two subjects in Brain and Cognitive Sciences
U (Spring)
Not offered regularly; consult department

Units arranged
Can be repeated for credit.

Undergraduate study in brain and cognitive sciences; covers material not offered in regular curriculum.

Consult Staff

9.S911-9.S917 Special Subject in Brain and Cognitive Sciences

Prereq: Permission of instructor
G (Fall)
Units arranged
Can be repeated for credit.

Advanced graduate study in brain and cognitive sciences; covers material not offered in regular curriculum. 9.S911 is graded P/D/F.

J. Di Carlo

9.S92 Special Subject in Brain and Cognitive Sciences

Prereq: 9.00
U (Fall, IAP, Spring)
Units arranged
Can be repeated for credit.

Undergraduate study in brain and cognitive sciences; covers material not offered in regular curriculum.

Consult Staff

9.S93-9.S99 Special Subject in Brain and Cognitive Sciences

Prereq: None
U (IAP)
Units arranged [P/D/F]

For undergraduate study in brain and cognitive sciences during Independent Activities Period; covers material not offered in regular curriculum. See IAP Guide for details.

Staff

9.THG Graduate Thesis

Prereq: Permission of instructor
G (Fall, IAP, Spring, Summer)
Units arranged
Can be repeated for credit.

Program of research leading to the writing of a Ph.D. thesis; to be arranged by the student and an appropriate MIT faculty member.

Staff

9.UR Undergraduate Research

Prereq: None
U (Fall, IAP, Spring, Summer)
Units arranged [P/D/F]
Can be repeated for credit.

9.URG Undergraduate Research

Prereq: None
U (Fall, IAP, Spring, Summer)
Units arranged
Can be repeated for credit.

Individual participation in an ongoing research project.

Consult Staff