History

History is the study of the recorded past. Since interest in the past is closely linked with a desire to understand the present, the history curriculum at MIT is tailored in part to put the modern world in historical perspective. Subjects explore the social, cultural, economic, and political transformations that shape the present; and efforts are made to suggest where traditional assumptions remain in present-day politics, society, and culture.

The curriculum seeks to encourage both an understanding of the human past and the development of skills necessary to express that knowledge effectively.

Undergraduate Study

Bachelor of Science in History (Course 21H)

The program leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science in History is designed to encourage students to discover and reconstruct the past, to confront and understand the complexity of past human behavior for itself, and to inform their sense of the historical present. The curriculum includes the selection of at least one subject taken from the curriculum's 21H undergraduate seminars. Students are expected to take seven additional subjects of their own choice, selected in consultation with a major advisor. These must include subjects drawn from at least two geographical areas, as well as one pre-modern (before 1700) and one modern subject.

During the junior year, the history major is required to take subject 21H.390 Theories and Methods in the Study of History, which is intended to develop skills for independent research and writing, followed in the senior year by 21H.THT History Pre-Thesis Tutorial and 21H.THU History Thesis. Subjects 21H.390 Theories and Methods in the Study of History and 21H.THU History Thesis satisfy the CI-M component of the Communication Requirement. Supplementing these requirements within the history curriculum is the stipulation of three additional subjects in a second field of humanities, arts, and social sciences that provide the perspectives of another discipline on the history of human thought and behavior. This program is intentionally flexible; the relatively large number of electives and unrestricted time allows for the design of a course of study that meets individual needs and interests.

Joint Degree Programs

Joint degree programs are offered in history in combination with a field in engineering or science (21E, 21S). See the joint degree programs listed under Humanities.

Minor in History

The goal of this minor is to lead the student from basic survey subjects into more focused studies of individual countries or periods of time, and to encourage thinking about broader analytical and comparative issues in historical study.

The Minor in History consists of six subjects, which must include:

21H.390Theories and Methods in the Study of History12
Select five subjects as follows: 151-60
Select at least one 21H seminar, excluding 21H.390 2
Select four introductory or intermediate subjects from the history curriculum
Total Units63-72
1

At least two temporal periods—one pre-modern (before 1700) and one modern—must be covered by these five subjects. For a list of available subjects, consult the History website

2

Select from 21H subjects for which the first digit after the decimal is 3.

Minor in Applied International Studies

A range of subjects in history can fulfill requirements for the interdisciplinary Minor in Applied International Studies. For more information, see the program description under Interdisciplinary Programs.

Inquiries

Further information on subjects and programs may be obtained from the History Office, Room E51-255, 617-324-5134.

Faculty and Teaching Staff

Jeffrey S. Ravel, PhD

Professor of History

Head, History Section

Professors

Robert M. Fogelson, PhD

Professor of Urban Studies

Professor of History

Philip S. Khoury, PhD

Ford International Professor of History

Associate Provost

Anne E. C. McCants, PhD

Professor of History

Harriet Ritvo, PhD

Arthur J. Connor Professor

Professor of History

Merritt Roe Smith, PhD

Leverett Howell Cutten '07 and William King Cutten '39 Professor of the History of Technology

Professor of History

Emma J. Teng, PhD

T. T. and Wei Fong Chao Professor of Asian Civilizations

Professor of Chinese Studies and History

Head, Global Studies and Languages Section

Craig Steven Wilder, PhD

Barton L. Weller Professor

Professor of History

Elizabeth A. Wood, PhD

Professor of History

Professor of Global Studies and Languages

Associate Professors

Sana Aiyar, PhD

Class of 1948 Career Development Chair

Associate Professor of History

William Broadhead, PhD

Associate Professor of History

(On leave, spring)

Christopher Capozzola, PhD

Associate Professor of History

(On leave, spring)

Lerna Ekmekcioglu, PhD

Genevieve McMillan and Reba Stewart Career Development Professor of the Study of Women in the Developing World

Associate Professor of History

Malick Ghachem, JD, PhD

Associate Professor of History

Eric J. Goldberg, PhD

Associate Professor of History

Christopher R. Leighton, PhD

Associate Professor of History

(On leave, fall)

Hiromu Nagahara, PhD

Associate Professor of History

Tanalís Padilla, PhD

Associate Professor of History

Assistant Professors

Caley Horan, PhD

Assistant Professor of History

Lecturers

Pouya Alimagham, PhD

Lecturer in History

Shane Bobrycki, PhD

Lecturer in History

Steven E. Ostrow, PhD

Lecturer in History

Professors Emeriti

John W. Dower, PhD

Ford International Professor of History Emeritus

Loren Graham, PhD

Professor Emeritus of the History of Science

Harold John Hanham, PhD

Professor Emeritus of History and Political Science

Peter C. Perdue, PhD

Professor Emeritus of History

William B. Watson, PhD

Associate Professor Emeritus of History

Introductory

21H.001 How to Stage a Revolution

Prereq: None
Acad Year 2017-2018: U (Fall)
Acad Year 2018-2019: Not offered

3-0-9 units. HASS-H; CI-H

Explores fundamental questions about the causes and nature of revolutions by looking at how people overthrow their rulers and establish new governments. Considers a set of major political transformations throughout the world and across centuries to understand the meaning of revolution and evaluate its impact. Examines how revolutionaries have attempted to establish their ideals and realize their goals. Asks whether radical upheavals require bloodshed, violence, or even terror. Seeks to explain why some revolutions succeed and others fail. Materials include the writings of revolutionaries, declarations and constitutions, music, films, art, novels, memoirs, and newspapers.

P. Alimagham, M. Ghachem, C. Horan

21H.007[J] Empire: Introduction to Ancient and Medieval Studies

Same subject as 21L.014[J]
Prereq: None
U (Spring)
Not offered regularly; consult department

3-0-9 units. HASS-H; CI-H

Interdisciplinary and comparative investigation of the Roman empire of Augustus and the Frankish empire of Charlemagne. Focuses on how large, multi-ethnic empires were created, sustained, legitimated, and contested through conquest, government, literature, art, and economic organization. Students examine different types of evidence, read across a variety of disciplines, and develop skills to identify continuities and changes in ancient and medieval societies.

Staff

21H.009 The World: 1400-Present

Prereq: None
Acad Year 2017-2018: Not offered
Acad Year 2018-2019: U (Fall)

3-0-9 units. HASS-H; CI-H

Surveys the economic and political evolution of societies and cultures from 1400 to the present. Studies the real and perceived interconnectedness of and difference between cultures, ideologies, and political territories in various parts of the world in the age of empires and nation-states. Examines a series of evolving relationships: of human beings and their physical environment; religious and political systems; and subgroups within communities as sorted by race, class, religion, gender, and political subjecthood. Introduces historical and other interpretive methodologies using both primary and secondary source materials. Considers architectural, audial, and visual evidence, in addition to textual sources.

S. Aiyar, H. Nagahara

21H.101 American History to 1865

Prereq: None
Acad Year 2017-2018: Not offered
Acad Year 2018-2019: U (Fall)

3-0-9 units. HASS-H

A basic history of American social, economic, and political development from the colonial period through the Civil War. Examines the colonial heritages of Spanish and British America; the American Revolution and its impact; the establishment and growth of the new nation; and the Civil War, its background, character, and impact. Readings include writings of the period by Winthrop, Paine, Jefferson, Madison, W. H. Garrison, G. Fitzhugh, H. B. Stowe, and Lincoln.

Staff

21H.102 American History since 1865

Prereq: None
U (Spring)
3-0-9 units. HASS-H; CI-H

Examines the social, cultural, political, and economic history of the United States, from the Civil War to the present. Uses secondary analysis and primary documents, such as court cases, personal accounts, photographs, and films, to examine some of the key issues in the shaping of modern America, including industrialization and urbanization, immigration, the rise of a mass consumer society, the emergence of the US as a global power, and the development of civil rights activism and other major social movements.

C. Horan

21H.106[J] Black Matters: Introduction to Black Studies

Same subject as 24.912[J], 21L.008[J], 21W.741[J], WGS.190[J]
Prereq: None
U (Spring)
3-0-9 units. HASS-A, HASS-H; CI-H

See description under subject 24.912[J].

M. Degraff

21H.107[J] Introduction to Asian American Studies: Historical and Contemporary Issues

Same subject as 21G.043[J]
Prereq: None
Acad Year 2017-2018: Not offered
Acad Year 2018-2019: U (Fall)

3-0-9 units. HASS-H

See description under subject 21G.043[J].

Consult E. Teng

21H.108[J] Sexual and Gender Identities

Same subject as WGS.110[J]
Prereq: None
U (Fall)
3-0-9 units. HASS-H

See description under subject WGS.110[J].

C. Horan

21H.130 The Ancient World: Greece

Prereq: None
U (Fall)
3-0-9 units. HASS-H; CI-H

History of Ancient Greece from the Bronze Age to the death of Alexander. Major social, economic, political, and religious trends. Homer, heroism, and the Greek identity; the hoplite revolution and the rise of the city-state; Herodotus, Persia, and the (re)birth of history; Empire, Thucydidean rationalism, and the Peloponnesian War; Aristotle, Macedonia, and Hellenism. Emphasis on use of primary sources in translation.

S. Ostrow

21H.132 The Ancient World: Rome

Prereq: None
Acad Year 2017-2018: Not offered
Acad Year 2018-2019: U (Spring)

3-0-9 units. HASS-H; CI-H

History of Rome from its humble beginnings to the 5th century A.D. First half: Kingship to Republican form; the conquest of Italy; Roman expansion: Pyrrhus, Punic Wars and provinces; classes, courts, and the Roman revolution; Augustus and the formation of empire. Second half: Virgil to the Vandals; major social, economic, political and religious trends at Rome and in the provinces. Emphasis on use of primary sources in translation.Enrollment limited.

W. Broadhead

21H.133 The Medieval World: CE 200-1500

Prereq: None
Acad Year 2017-2018: Not offered
Acad Year 2018-2019: U (Spring)

3-0-9 units. HASS-H

Investigates the dynamic history of Europe and its relations with the wider world between the late Roman empire and voyages of discovery. Examines the rise of Christianity, the cult of the saints, and monasticism; the decline of the Roman empire, the barbarian invasions, and the foundation of post-Roman kingdoms; the meteoric rise of Islam; the formation of the Carolingian, Byzantine, and Islamic empires; the Vikings and Mongols; castles, knights, and crusades; religious thinkers, reformers, and heretics; changes in art, architecture, and literature; the Black Death and the fall of Constantinople; the Italian Renaissance and the voyages of discovery.

E. Goldberg

21H.134[J] Medieval Economic History in Comparative Perspective

Same subject as 14.70[J]
Prereq: None
U (Fall)
3-0-9 units. HASS-S; CI-H

Surveys the conditions of material life and changing social and economic relations in medieval Europe using the comparative context of contemporary Islamic, Chinese, and Japanese experiences. Covers the emergence and decline of feudal institutions, the transformation of peasant agriculture, living standards and the course of epidemic disease, and the ebb and flow of long-distance trade across the Eurasian system. Particular emphasis placed on the study of those factors, both institutional and technological, which contributed to the emergence of capitalist organization and economic growth in western Europe in contrast to the trajectories followed by the other major medieval economies.

S. Bobrycki

21H.141 Renaissance to Revolution: Europe, 1300-1800

Prereq: None
Acad Year 2017-2018: Not offered
Acad Year 2018-2019: U (Spring)

3-0-9 units. HASS-H; CI-H

Provides an introduction to major political, social, cultural and intellectual changes in Europe from the beginnings of the Renaissance in Italy around 1300 to the outbreak of the French Revolution at the end of the 1700s. Focuses on the porous boundaries between categories of theology, magic and science. Examines how developments in these areas altered European political institutions, social structures, and cultural practices. Studies men and women, nobles and commoners, as well as Europeans and some non-Europeans with whom they came into contact.

J. Ravel

21H.151 Traditional China: Earliest Times to 1644

Prereq: None
Acad Year 2017-2018: Not offered
Acad Year 2018-2019: U (Spring)

3-0-9 units. HASS-H

Examines how traditional China originated a civilization of universal meaning and persistent influence, including ideologies, technologies, and culture. Explains how this unique civilization and the Chinese state at its center developed, considers its patterns, and assesses its impact. Emphasizes analysis of structures as well as knowledge of events.

C. Leighton

21H.152 Modern China: 1644 to the Present

Prereq: None
U (Spring)
3-0-9 units. HASS-H

Surveys China from its last empire through its reemergence as a power in modern times. Examines how China's contemporary transformation has lifted hundreds of millions from poverty, refashioned social relations, and altered international politics. Students debate the causes and consequences of these major events and speculate on China's future in the light of its past.

C. Leighton

21H.154 Inventing the Samurai

Prereq: None
U (Spring)
3-0-9 units. HASS-H

Explores the historical origins of the Japanese warrior class as well as its reinvention throughout the archipelago's history. Special focus on the pre-modern era (200-1600 CE). Highlights key historical contexts including the rise of the imperial court, interactions with the broader world, and the establishment of a warrior-dominated state. Also considers the modern imaginations and uses of the warrior figure.

H. Nagahara

21H.155 Modern Japan: 1600 to Present

Prereq: None
Acad Year 2017-2018: Not offered
Acad Year 2018-2019: U (Spring)

3-0-9 units. HASS-H

Surveys Japanese history from the establishment of the Tokugawa shogunate in 1603 to the present and explores the local and global nature of modernity in Japan. Highlights key themes, including the emergence of a modern nation-state, the rise and fall of the Japanese Empire, the development of mass consumer culture and the middle class, and the continued importance of historical memory in Japan today.

H. Nagahara

21H.157 The Making of Modern South Asia

Prereq: None
U (Fall)
3-0-9 units. HASS-S

Explores the political, social, and economic history of South Asia from the 18th century to the present day. Topics include colonial rule; anti-colonial movements; nationalism and the creation of modern India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh; the post-colonial nation state; social movements; religious identity; involvement of the United States in the region; and economic development. Students develop an understanding of the current successes, failures, and challenges facing the people and states of contemporary South Asia from a historical perspective.

S. Aiyar

21H.160 Islam, the Middle East, and the West

Prereq: None
U (Fall)
3-0-9 units. HASS-H

Provides students with an overview of basic themes and issues in Middle Eastern history from the rise of Islam to the present, with an emphasis on exchanges and encounters between the Middle East and Europe/North America. Examines the history of the notion of "East" and "West"; the emergence of Islam and the Christianization of Europe; Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal expansion and the flourishing of European powers; European competition with and colonization of Middle Eastern societies, and Middle Eastern responses including Arab nationalism and the popularity of Islamic movements.

P. Alimagham

21H.161 The Middle East in the Twentieth Century

Prereq: None
U (Spring)
3-0-9 units. HASS-H; CI-H

Surveys the history of the Middle East, from the end of the 19th century to the present. Examines major political, social, intellectual and cultural issues and practices. Focuses on important events, movements, and ideas that prevailed during the last century and affect its current realities.Enrollment limited.

P. Alimagham

21H.165 A Survey of Modern African History (New)

Prereq: None
U (Spring)
3-0-9 units. HASS-H

Surveys the history of 19th- and 20th-century Africa. Focuses on the European conquest of Africa and the dynamics of colonial rule, especially its socioeconomic and cultural consequences. Looks at how the rising tide of African nationalism, in the form of labor strikes and guerrilla wars, ushered out colonialism. Examines the postcolonial states, focusing on the politics of development, recent civil wars in countries like Rwanda and Liberia, the AIDS epidemic, and the history of Apartheid in South Africa up to 1994.

K. Mutongi

21H.170[J] Introduction to Latin American Studies (New)

Same subject as 17.55[J], 21A.130[J], 21G.084[J]
Prereq: None
U (Spring)
3-0-9 units. HASS-S; CI-H

See description under subject 17.55[J].

T. Padilla, P. Duong

21H.171 Latin America: Revolution, Dictatorship, and Democracy, 1850 to Present

Prereq: None
U (Fall)
3-0-9 units. HASS-H

Selective survey of Latin American history from the mid-19th century to the present. Issues studied include: dictators and democracies in the 20th century, revolution in Mexico, Cuba, and Central America, Latin America in the global economy, relations between Latin America and the U.S., indigenismo, feminism, and the varieties of religion in Latin America.

W. San Martin

21H.172[J] Latin America Through Film

Same subject as 21G.078[J]
Prereq: None
Acad Year 2017-2018: Not offered
Acad Year 2018-2019: U (Spring)

3-0-9 units. HASS-H

Traces Latin American history through film and analyzes how this medium represents events in the recent and distant past. Weekly movies provide a window through which to analyze themes such as colonialism, national formation, revolution, gender, race relations, popular mobilizations and counterinsurgency. Examines films for how they represent a particular group or country, the reality they capture or obscure, and the message they convey.

T. Padilla

21H.181[J] Libertarianism in History

Same subject as 17.035[J]
Prereq: None
U (Spring)
3-0-9 units. HASS-H

Explores the history of the ideal of individual liberty in light of contemporary arguments over the regulatory state. Surveys the political theory of freedom and competing norms (property, equality, community, and republicanism). Considers examples of modern free movements, including abolitionism and conflicts over religious freedom. Concludes with a set of policy debates about the role of government in regulating health care, the financial markets, and the internet.

M. Ghachem

21H.185[J] Environment and History

Same subject as 12.386[J]
Prereq: None
U (Fall)
3-0-9 units. HASS-S; CI-H

Focusing on the period from 1500 to the present, explores the influence of climate, topography, plants, animals, and microorganisms on human history and the reciprocal influence of people on the environment. Topics include the European encounter with the Americas, the impact of modern technology, and the current environmental crisis.Enrollment limited.

H. Ritvo, S.Solomon

Intermediate

21H.201 The American Revolution

Prereq: None
Acad Year 2017-2018: Not offered
Acad Year 2018-2019: U (Spring)

3-0-9 units. HASS-H

English and American backgrounds of the Revolution; issues and arguments in the Anglo-American conflict; colonial resistance and the beginnings of republicanism; the Revolutionary War; constitution writing for the states and nation; and effects of the American Revolution. Concerned primarily with the revolutionary origins of American government and laws. Readings emphasize documents from the period--pamphlets, correspondence, the minutes or resolutions of resistance organizations, constitutional documents and debates.

Staff

21H.205[J] The Civil War and the Emergence of Modern America: 1861-1890

Same subject as STS.027[J]
Subject meets with STS.427

Prereq: Permission of instructor
Acad Year 2017-2018: Not offered
Acad Year 2018-2019: U (Fall)

3-0-9 units. HASS-H

See description under subject STS.027[J].

M. R. Smith

21H.211 The United States in the Nuclear Age

Prereq: None
Acad Year 2017-2018: Not offered
Acad Year 2018-2019: U (Spring)

3-0-9 units. HASS-H

Examines the culture that developed in the US during the early years of the Cold War, at the dawn of the nuclear age. Topics include new family structures and civil defense strategies that emerged in response to the promise and perils of nuclear power; the role of anxiety and insecurity in transforming American politics and psychology; the development of computing technology and the changes it brought to American workspaces; the social impacts of space exploration, suburbanization, and the construction of highways and shopping malls; and new models used by social scientists and other experts to predict human behavior and the future.

C. Horan

21H.213[J] The War at Home: American Politics and Society in Wartime

Same subject as 17.28[J]
Prereq: None
Acad Year 2017-2018: Not offered
Acad Year 2018-2019: U (Spring)

3-0-9 units. HASS-S

See description under subject 17.28[J].

A. Berinsky, C. Capozzola

21H.214 War and American Society

Prereq: None
Acad Year 2017-2018: Not offered
Acad Year 2018-2019: U (Fall)

3-0-9 units. HASS-H

Examines how issues of war and national security have affected politics, economics, and society from the First World War to the war in Iraq. Draws on historical evidence as well as representations in film, music and popular culture.

C. Capozzola

21H.217[J] American Urban History

Same subject as 11.013[J]
Prereq: None
U (Fall)
2-0-7 units. HASS-H; CI-H

See description under subject 11.013[J].

R. M. Fogelson

21H.218[J] History of the Built Environment in the US

Same subject as 11.014[J]
Prereq: None
U (Fall)
2-0-7 units. HASS-H; CI-H

See description under subject 11.014[J].

R. M. Fogelson

21H.220[J] Metropolis: A Comparative History of New York City

Same subject as 11.150[J]
Prereq: None
Acad Year 2017-2018: Not offered
Acad Year 2018-2019: U (Fall)

3-0-9 units. HASS-H

Examines the evolution of New York City from 1607 to the present. Readings focus on the city's social and physical histories. Discussions compare New York's development to patterns in other cities.

C. Wilder

21H.226[J] Riots, Strikes, and Conspiracies in American History

Same subject as 11.015[J]
Prereq: None
Acad Year 2017-2018: U (Spring)
Acad Year 2018-2019: Not offered

3-0-9 units. HASS-H; CI-H

Focuses on a series of short, complicated, traumatic events that shed light on American politics, culture, and society. Events studied may include the rendition of Anthony Burns in 1854, the most famous fugitive slave controversy in US history; the Homestead strike/lockout of 1892; the quiz show scandal of the 1950s; and the student uprisings at Columbia University in 1968. Emphasis on finding ways to make sense of these events and on using them to understand larger processes of change in American history.

R. M. Fogelson

21H.227 Constitutional Law in US History

Prereq: None
U (Fall)
3-0-9 units. HASS-S

Introduces major themes and patterns of change in American constitutional law since 1787, including federal-state relations, racial and gender equality, economic regulation, and civil liberties. Readings consist of original court cases, especially from the US Supreme Court, including cases of the current term. Emphasis on the historical development of constitutional law and on the relationship between the Supreme Court and broader social, political, and cultural trends.

C. Capozzola

21H.228 American Classics

Prereq: None
U (Fall)
3-0-9 units. HASS-H; CI-H

Students read, discuss, and write about critical works in American history from the 17th through the 20th centuries. Includes writings by early Puritan writers, Franklin, Paine, Jefferson, and Madison; Lewis and Clark; Frederick Douglass; Harriet Beecher Stowe; the Lincoln-Douglas debates; U. S. Grant, W. E. B. Dubois, Andrew Carnegie, Horatio Alger, F. D. Roosevelt, Betty Friedan, and Martin Luther King, Jr. May also include music, recorded speeches, television programs, visual images, or films.Enrollment limited

C. Wilder

21H.229 The Black Radical Tradition in America

Prereq: None
U (Spring)
3-0-9 units. HASS-H

Focuses on American history from the African-American perspective. Includes alternative visions of the nation's future, and definitions of its progress, that have called for a fundamental restructuring of political, economic and social relations. Introduces events, figures and institutions that have shaped African-American history, from the struggles to dominate the African coast and the emergence of a modern slave trade, through the fall of the Western slave societies. Also examines the experiences of Africans in other parts of North America, as well as South America and the Caribbean.

C. Wilder

21H.230 Barbarians, Saints, and Emperors

Prereq: None
U (Spring)
3-0-9 units. HASS-H

Explores the late Roman Empire and its transformations during Late Antiquity (c.300-c.700). Questions the traditional decline and fall narrative of the period, which argues that Christianity and barbarians destroyed classical civilization and ushered in the Dark Ages. Explores such topics as Romans and barbarians, paganism and Christianity, politics and war, Rome and Constantinople, and bishops and saints. Discusses the influence of such characters as Constantine the Great, St. Augustine, Attila the Hun, and the prophet Mohammed.

E. Goldberg

21H.237 The City of Athens in the Age of Pericles

Prereq: None
Acad Year 2017-2018: Not offered
Acad Year 2018-2019: U (Fall)

3-0-9 units. HASS-H

Historical topography of ancient Athens. Investigates the relationship between urban architecture and political, social, and cultural history of Athens in the 5th and 4th centuries BC. Surveys and analyzes archeological and literary evidence, including the sanctuary of Athena on the Acropolis, the Agora, Greek houses, the histories of Herodotus and Thucydides, plays of Sophocles and Aristophanes, and the panhellenic sanctuaries of Delphi and Olympia.

W. Broadhead

21H.238 The Vikings

Prereq: None
U (Fall)
3-0-9 units. HASS-H

Explores the complex relationship of the Vikings with the medieval world. Investigates the complexity of the Viking expansion, not only in terms of raiding and conflict, but also as a process of diplomacy, settlement, assimilation, and colonization. Examines developments within Scandinavian society such as state formation, social structures, trade, shipbuilding, slavery, urban growth, and Christianization. Considers the methodological difficulties presented by the diverse and often contradictory historical sources for information about the Vikings, such as chronicles, archaeology, coin hoards, stone inscriptions, and sagas.

E. Goldberg

21H.239 The City of Rome in the Age of the Caesars

Prereq: None
U (Fall)
3-0-9 units. HASS-H

Historical topography of Ancient Rome. Investigates the relationship between urban architecture and the political, social, and cultural history of Rome from the 1st century BC to the 2nd century AD. Surveys and analyzes archaeological and literary evidence, including the Roman Forum, the Imperial fora, the palace of the emperors, the atrium houses of Roman Pompeii, the Colosseum, the Pantheon, Polybius' history, Martial's Epigrams, and Vitruvius' treatise on architecture.

W. Broadhead

21H.240 The World of Charlemagne

Prereq: None
Acad Year 2017-2018: Not offered
Acad Year 2018-2019: U (Fall)

3-0-9 units. HASS-H; CI-H

Investigates the world of the first medieval emperor, Charles the Great, or Charlemagne (768-814). Focuses on how Charlemagne and his dynasty, the Carolingians (ruled 751-888), forged a vast empire out of the diverse peoples and territories of Europe - not only through conquests and military might, but through Christianity and the Church, education and literacy, government and law, art and architecture, and a fundamental reorganization of the economy and society. Considers the enduring contributions of Charlemagne and his family to the formation of Europe as well as the shortcomings and failures of their empire.

E. Goldberg

21H.241[J] France: Enlightenment and Revolution

Same subject as 21G.054[J]
Prereq: None
Acad Year 2017-2018: Not offered
Acad Year 2018-2019: U (Fall)

3-0-9 units. HASS-H

Explores the question of whether the French Enlightenment caused the French Revolution. Studies France prior to 1789, analyzes some of the most critically corrosive works of the French Enlightenment, and considers how ideas circulated through France and Europe in the eighteenth century. Examines the role of enlightened ideas in France during the revolutionary decade from 1789 to 1799.

J. Ravel

21H.242[J] Frenchness in an Era of Globalization

Same subject as 21G.322[J]
Prereq: One intermediate subject in French or permission of instructor
Acad Year 2017-2018: Not offered
Acad Year 2018-2019: U (Fall)

3-0-9 units. HASS-H

See description under subject 21G.322[J].Limited to 18.

C. Clark

21H.244[J] Imperial and Revolutionary Russia: Culture and Politics, 1700-1917

Same subject as 21G.085[J]
Prereq: None
U (Fall)
3-0-9 units. HASS-H

Analyzes Russia's social, cultural, and political heritage in the 18th and 19th centuries, up to and including the Russian Revolution of 1917. Compares reforming and revolutionary impulses in the context of serfdom, the rise of the intelligentsia, and debates over capitalism. Focuses on historical and literary texts, especially the intersections between the two.

E. Wood

21H.245[J] Soviet and Post-Soviet Politics and Society: 1917 to the Present

Same subject as 17.57[J], 21G.086[J]
Prereq: None
U (Spring)
3-0-9 units. HASS-S; CI-H

Explores the political and historical evolution of the Soviet state and society from the 1917 Revolution to the present. Covers the creation of a revolutionary regime, causes and nature of the Stalin revolution, post-Stalinist efforts to achieve political and social reform, and causes of the Soviet collapse. Also examines current developments in Russia in light of Soviet history.Enrollment limited

E. Wood

21H.253[J] The Global Chinese: Chinese Migration, 1567-Present

Same subject as 21G.075[J]
Subject meets with 21G.196

Prereq: None
Acad Year 2017-2018: Not offered
Acad Year 2018-2019: U (Fall)

3-0-9 units. HASS-H

See description under subject 21G.075[J].

E. Teng, H. Lee

21H.260 Cities in the Middle East: History, Politics and Society

Prereq: None
Acad Year 2017-2018: Not offered
Acad Year 2018-2019: U (Fall)

3-0-9 units. HASS-S

Examines the role and centrality of cities in the history of the modern Middle East, through political, social, cultural and urban interactions. Begins with a theoretical introduction of the different approaches for investigating urban spaces, and follows with discussions of case studies that demonstrate the diversity of urban centers in the Middle East, including Beirut, Istanbul, Jerusalem, Mecca, Algiers, and Cairo.

Staff

21H.262 Palestine and the Arab-Israeli Conflict

Prereq: None
Acad Year 2017-2018: Not offered
Acad Year 2018-2019: U (Fall)

3-0-9 units. HASS-H

Surveys the history and various realities and challenges of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Introduces the fundamental historical trajectories of the conflict. Analyzes the conflicting narratives and perceptions of both Palestinians and Israelis over key moments and issues in the conflict's history. Considers current challenges and possible solutions to the conflict.Limited to 15.

P. Alimagham

21H.263[J] Women and Gender in the Middle East and North Africa (New)

Same subject as WGS.220[J]
Prereq: None
U (Spring)
3-0-9 units. HASS-H

See description under subject WGS.220[J].

L. Eckmekcioglu

21H.273 From Coca to Cocaine: Drug Economies in Latin America

Prereq: None
Acad Year 2017-2018: Not offered
Acad Year 2018-2019: U (Spring)

3-0-9 units. HASS-H

Explores how drug production and consumption has affected Latin America's political, cultural and economic life and shaped US foreign policy toward the region. Discusses the history of different psychoactive substances and analyzes why certain drugs became illegal. Pays particular attention to the relationship between strategies of interdiction, poverty, and drug violence.Limited to 35.

T. Padilla

21H.274[J] Creation of a Continent: Representations of Hispanic America, 1492-1898, in Literature and Film (New)

Same subject as 21G.731[J]
Prereq: One intermediate Spanish subject or permission of instructor
Acad Year 2017-2018: U (Spring)
Acad Year 2018-2019: Not offered

3-0-9 units. HASS-H

See description under subject 21G.731[J].

L. Ewald

21H.285[J] Making the Modern World: The Industrial Revolution in Global Perspective

Same subject as STS.025[J]
Prereq: None
Acad Year 2017-2018: Not offered
Acad Year 2018-2019: U (Spring)

3-0-9 units. HASS-H

See description under subject STS.025[J].

M. R. Smith

Seminars

21H.315 American Consumer Culture

Prereq: None
Acad Year 2017-2018: Not offered
Acad Year 2018-2019: U (Spring)

2-0-10 units. HASS-H

Examines how and why 20th-century Americans came to define the "good life" through consumption, leisure, and material abundance. Explores how such things as department stores, advertising, mass-produced cars, and suburbs transformed the American economy, society, and politics.

C. Horan

21H.319 Race, Crime, and Citizenship in American Law

Prereq: None
U (Spring)
3-0-9 units. HASS-S

Explores the relationship between the history of the US criminal justice system and controversies over racial disparities in the war on drugs and the policing of minority communities. Includes perspectives on the rise of mass incarceration and the debates over the role of race, poverty, and procedure in criminal punishment. Examines a series of case studies on topics such as the death penalty, illegal immigration, and the Fourth Amendment. Studies the constitutional aspects of national security policing before and after 9/11.

M. Ghachem

21H.320[J] Gender and the Law in US History

Same subject as WGS.161[J]
Prereq: None
Acad Year 2017-2018: Not offered
Acad Year 2018-2019: U (Fall)

3-0-9 units. HASS-H

Explores the legal history of the US as a gendered system. Examines how women have shaped the meanings of American citizenship through pursuit of political rights such as suffrage, jury duty, and military service, as well as how the legal system has shaped gender relations through regulation of such issues as marriage, divorce, work, reproduction, and the family. Readings draw from primary and secondary materials, focusing on the broad historical relationship between law and society. No legal knowledge is required or assumed.

C. Capozzola

21H.321[J] Downtown

Same subject as 11.026[J]
Subject meets with 11.339

Prereq: None
U (Spring)
2-0-7 units. HASS-H

Seminar on downtown in US cities from the late 19th century to the late 20th. Emphasis on downtown as an idea, place, and cluster of interests, on the changing character of downtown, and on recent efforts to rebuild it. Considers subways, skyscrapers, highways, urban renewal, and retail centers. Focus on readings, discussions, and individual research projects. Students taking graduate version complete additional assignments.

R. M. Fogelson

21H.322 Christianity in America

Prereq: None
Acad Year 2017-2018: Not offered
Acad Year 2018-2019: U (Fall)

3-0-9 units. HASS-H

Examines Christian encounters with Judaism, Islam, and the indigenous religions of Africa and America. Explores the intellectual and social consequences of Christian imperialism and the transformations of Christianity during its American encounters.

C. Wilder

21H.331 Julius Caesar and the Fall of the Roman Republic

Prereq: None
U (Fall)
3-0-9 units. HASS-H

Ancient Rome from 133 to 27 BC. Explores political, social, and economic factors commonly offered to explain the fall of the Roman Republic: growth of the territorial empire, increased intensity of aristocratic competition, transformation of the Italian economy, growth of the city of Rome and dependence of the urban plebs, changes in military recruitment and dependence of soldiers on their generals. Emphasis on the reading of ancient sources in translation, including Cicero, Sallust, Caesar, Augustus, Appian, Plutarch, and Suetonius. Instruction and practice in oral and written communication provided. Taught in seminar format with emphasis on class participation.Limited to 15.

W. Broadhead

21H.333 Early Christianity

Prereq: None
U (Fall)
3-0-9 units. HASS-H

Introduction to the history of early Christianity, from Jesus to Muhammad. Investigates the origins and spread of the Jesus movement within the ancient Jewish and Roman worlds, the emergence of the Church, and the diversity of early Christian thought, spirituality, literature, and art. Examines such topics as the historical Jesus and Paul, relations among Jews, Romans, and Christians, debates over orthodoxy and heresy, the conversion of the Roman empire, the rise of bishops and monasticism, the Church Fathers, and the cult of the saints.

E. Goldberg

21H.336 The Making of a Roman Emperor

Prereq: None
Acad Year 2017-2018: Not offered
Acad Year 2018-2019: U (Spring)

3-0-9 units. HASS-H

Through close examination of the emperor Augustus and his Julio-Claudian successors, this subject investigates how Roman emperors used art, architecture, coinage, and other media to create and project an image of themselves, how the surviving literary sources from the Roman period reinforced or subverted that image, and how both phenomena have contributed to post-classical perceptions of Roman emperors. Also considers works of Suetonius and Tacitus, and modern representations of the emperors such as those found in the films I, Claudius, Quo Vadis, and HBO's Rome series.Enrollment limited to 15.

W. Broadhead

21H.343[J] Making Books in the Renaissance and Today

Same subject as CC.120[J]
Prereq: None
U (Fall)
3-0-9 units. HASS-A

Explores the impact of new technology on the recording and distribution of words and images at three different times: the invention of the printing press ca. 1450; the adaptation of electricity to communication technology in the 19th century (telegraph, telephone, phonograph); and the emergence of digital media today. Assignments include essays and online projects. Students participate in the design and construction of a hand-set printing press.Limited to 12.

J. Ravel, A. McCants

21H.350 Business in China Since 1800

Prereq: None
Acad Year 2017-2018: U (Spring)
Acad Year 2018-2019: Not offered

3-0-9 units. HASS-H

Analyzes the characteristics of business in China since 1800 to provide a historical context for its contemporary economic development. Topics include China's place in the world economy; early efforts at state-led industrialization; legal and social frameworks for business; foreign investments, companies, and competition; the emergence of a Chinese business class; the influence of socialism and reform-era politics on business. Includes case studies of contemporary companies and a research project.

C. Leighton

21H.351[J] Shanghai and China's Modernization

Same subject as 11.153[J]
Prereq: None
Acad Year 2017-2018: Not offered
Acad Year 2018-2019: U (Fall)

2-0-10 units. HASS-H

Considers the history and function of Shanghai, from 1840 to the present, and its rise from provincial backwater to international metropolis. Examines its role as a primary point of economic, political, and social contact between China and the world, and the strong grip Shanghai holds on both the Chinese and foreign imagination. Students discuss the major events and figures of Shanghai, critique the classic historiography, and complete an independent project on Shanghai history.

C. Leighton

21H.354 World War II in Asia

Prereq: None
U (Spring)
3-0-9 units. HASS-H

Examines World War II in the Asia-Pacific region, starting with the rise of the Japanese Empire after World War I and ending with the Allied occupation of Japan from 1945 to 1952. Highlights the diverse and, at times, contradictory forces in politics, society, and culture that shaped the wartime experiences of the empire's inhabitants.

H. Nagahara

21H.357 South Asian Migrations

Prereq: None
U (Spring)
3-0-9 units. HASS-H

Provides a global history of South Asians and introduces students to the cultural, social, economic, and political experiences of immigrants who traveled across the world. Studies how and why South Asians, who have migrated to America, Europe, Africa, the Caribbean and the Middle East, are considered a model minority in some countries and unwanted strangers in others. Through literature, memoirs, films, music, and historical writing, follows South Asian migrants as they discovered the world beyond India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh.

S. Aiyar

21H.358 Colonialism in South Asia and Africa

Subject meets with 21H.958
Prereq: None
U (Fall)
2-0-10 units. HASS-H

Provides a comparative perspective on the history of colonialism in India and Africa. Explores the political, social, and economic changes brought about by colonial rule. Discusses the international context for the emergence of European Imperialism in the 19th century; the nature of early colonial expansion and consolidation; the re-invention of tradition in colonial societies, especially with regard to racial and ethnic identity, gender, religion, and caste; and expressions of anti-colonial resistance. Students taking graduate version complete additional assignments.

S. Aiyar

21H.365 Minorities and Majorities in the Middle East

Prereq: None
U (Spring)
3-0-9 units. HASS-H

Seminar considers "difference" and "sameness" as they have been conceived, experienced, and regulated by peoples of the Middle East, with a focus on the 19th and 20th centuries. First half discusses the Ottoman Empire. Explores how this multiethnic, polyglot empire survived for several relatively peaceful centuries and what happened when its formula for existence was challenged by politics based on mono-ethnic states. Second half focuses on post-Ottoman nation-states, such as Turkey and Egypt, and Western-mandated Arab states, such as Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, and Iraq. Concludes with a case analysis of Israel.

L. Ekmekcioglu

21H.380[J] People and Other Animals

Same subject as 21A.411[J]
Subject meets with 21A.419[J], 21H.980[J]

Prereq: None
Acad Year 2017-2018: Not offered
Acad Year 2018-2019: U (Fall)

2-0-10 units. HASS-S

Historical exploration of the ways that people have interacted with their closest animal relatives, for example: hunting, domestication of livestock, exploitation of animal labor, scientific study of animals, display of exotic and performing animals, and pet-keeping. Themes include changing ideas about animal agency and intelligence, our moral obligations to animals, and the limits imposed on the use of animals. Students taking the graduate version complete additional assignments.

H. Ritvo

21H.381[J] Women and War

Same subject as WGS.222[J]
Prereq: None
U (Fall)
3-0-9 units. HASS-S

Examines women's experiences during and after war and genocide, covering the first half of the 20th century in Europe and the Middle East. Addresses ways in which women's wartime suffering has been used to further a variety of political and social agendas. Discussions focus on a different topic each week, such as sexual violence, women survivors, female perpetrators of genocide, nurses, children of genocidal rape, and the memory of war.

L. Ekmekcioglu

21H.382 Capitalism in the Age of Revolution

Prereq: None
Acad Year 2017-2018: Not offered
Acad Year 2018-2019: U (Fall)

3-0-9 units. HASS-H

Focuses on a period of Atlantic history when the monopoly trading corporation became one of the central vehicles for propagating novel instruments of credit, debt, and investment. Views the eighteenth century, beginning with the first major stock market crashes in 1719-1720, as a period of recurring financial crisis in which corporate power came into sustained and direct contact with emerging republican norms.

M. Ghachem

21H.383 Technology and the Global Economy, 1000-2000

Subject meets with 21H.982
Prereq: None
U (Spring)
3-0-9 units. HASS-S

Examines the global history of the last millennium, including technological change, commodity exchange, systems of production, and economic growth. Students engage with economic history, medieval and early modern origins of modern systems of production, consumption and global exchange. Topics include the long pre-history of modern economic development; medieval world systems; the age of discovery, the global crisis of the 17th century; demographic systems, global population movements; the industrial revolution, the rise of the modern consumer; colonialism and empire building; patterns of inequality, within and across states; the curse of natural resources fate of Africa; and the threat of climate change to modern economic systems. Students taking graduate version complete additional assignments.

A. McCants

21H.385[J] The Ghetto: From Venice to Harlem

Same subject as 11.152[J]
Prereq: None
U (Spring)
2-0-10 units. HASS-S

Provides an in-depth look at a modern institution of oppression: the ghetto. Uses literature to examine ghettoization over time and across a wide geographical area, from Jews in Medieval Europe to African-Americans and Latinos in the 20th-century United States. Also explores segregation and poverty in the urban "Third World."

C. Wilder

21H.390 Theories and Methods in the Study of History

Subject meets with 21H.991
Prereq: Two History subjects or permission of instructor
U (Fall)
3-0-9 units. HASS-H

Examines the distinctive ways in which historians in different parts of the world have approached the task of writing history. Explores methodologies used, such as political, social, economic, cultural, and popular histories through the reading and discussion of relevant and innovative texts. Introduces a variety of sources (archival documents, statistical data, film, fiction, memoirs, artifacts, and images) and the ways they can be used to research, interpret, and present the past. Assignments include an original research paper. Students taking graduate version complete additional assignments.

C. Capozzola

21H.391 Undergraduate Independent Study

Prereq: None
U (Fall, IAP)
Units arranged
Can be repeated for credit.

Individual supervised work for students who wish to explore an area of interest in history. Before registering, a student must plan a course of study with a member of the History Faculty and secure approval from the Head of the History Faculty. Normal maximum is 6 units; exceptional 9-unit projects occasionally approved.

Staff

21H.392 Undergraduate Independent Study

Prereq: None
U (Spring)
Units arranged
Can be repeated for credit.

Individual supervised work for students who wish to explore an area of interest in history. Before registering, a student must plan a course of study with a member of the History Faculty and secure approval from the Head of the History Faculty. Normal maximum is 6 units; exceptional 9-unit projects occasionally approved.

Staff

Special Subjects

21H.S01 Special Subject: History

Prereq: Permission of instructor
U (Fall, Spring)
3-0-9 units
Can be repeated for credit.

Opportunity for group study of special subject not listed in the regular History curriculum.

Staff

21H.S02 Special Subject: History

Prereq: Permission of instructor
U (Fall, Spring)
3-0-9 units
Can be repeated for credit.

Opportunity for group study of special subject not listed in the regular History curriculum.

Staff

21H.S03 Special Subject: History (New)

Prereq: None
U (Fall, IAP, Spring; partial term)
Units arranged
Can be repeated for credit.

Opportunity for group study of special subject not listed in the regular History curriculum.

Staff

Undergraduate Research

21H.THT History Pre-Thesis Tutorial

Prereq: None
U (Fall, Spring)
Units arranged
Can be repeated for credit.

Students writing a thesis in History develop their research topics, review relevant research and scholarship, frame their research questions and arguments, choose an appropriate methodology for analysis, and draft the introductory and methodology sections of their theses. Includes substantial practice in writing (with revision) and oral presentations.

Staff

21H.THU History Thesis

Prereq: 21H.THT
U (Fall, Spring)
Units arranged
Can be repeated for credit.

Completion of work on the senior major thesis under supervision of a faculty thesis advisor. Includes oral presentation of thesis progress early in the term, assembling and revising the final text, and a final meeting with a committee of faculty evaluators to discuss the successes and limitations of the project. Required for students pursuing a full major in History.

Staff

21H.UR Undergraduate Research

Prereq: None
U (Fall, IAP, Spring, Summer)
Units arranged [P/D/F]
Can be repeated for credit.

Individual participation in an ongoing research project. For students in the Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program.

Staff

21H.URG Undergraduate Research

Prereq: None
U (Fall, IAP, Spring, Summer)
Units arranged
Can be repeated for credit.

Individual participation in an ongoing research project. For students in the Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program.

Staff

Graduate Subjects

21H.902 Reading Seminar in American History: 1877 to Present

Prereq: 21H.991, permission of instructor
Acad Year 2017-2018: Not offered
Acad Year 2018-2019: G (Spring)

3-0-9 units

Develops teaching knowledge and research skills through extensive reading and discussion of major works in modern US history. Readings cover a range of topics and historical methods. Students make frequent oral presentations and submit a major work consisting of original research or historiographic interpretation.

C. Wilder

21H.958 Colonialism in South Asia and Africa

Subject meets with 21H.358
Prereq: None
G (Fall)
2-0-10 units

Provides a comparative perspective on the history of colonialism in India and Africa. Explores the political, social, and economic changes brought about by colonial rule. Discusses the international context for the emergence of European Imperialism in the 19th century; the nature of early colonial expansion and consolidation; the re-invention of tradition in colonial societies, especially with regard to racial and ethnic identity, gender, religion, and caste; and expressions of anti-colonial resistance. Students taking graduate version complete additional assignments.

S. Aiyar

21H.980[J] People and Other Animals

Same subject as 21A.419[J]
Subject meets with 21A.411[J], 21H.380[J]

Prereq: None
Acad Year 2017-2018: Not offered
Acad Year 2018-2019: G (Fall)

2-0-10 units

Historical exploration of the ways that people have interacted with their closest animal relatives, for example: hunting, domestication of livestock, exploitation of animal labor, scientific study of animals, display of exotic and performing animals, and pet-keeping. Themes include changing ideas about animal agency and intelligence, our moral obligations to animals, and the limits imposed on the use of animals. Students taking the graduate version complete additional assignments.

H. Ritvo

21H.981 Seminar in Nature, Environment, and Empire

Prereq: None
Acad Year 2017-2018: Not offered
Acad Year 2018-2019: G (Fall)

3-0-9 units

Explores the relationship between the study of natural history, both domestic and exotic, by Europeans and Americans, and concrete exploitation of the natural world. Focuses on the 18th and 19th centuries.

H. Ritvo

21H.982 Technology and the Global Economy, 1000-2000

Subject meets with 21H.383
Prereq: None
G (Spring)
3-0-9 units

Examines the global history of the last millennium, including technological change, commodity exchange, systems of production, and economic growth. Students engage with economic history, medieval and early modern origins of modern systems of production, consumption and global exchange. Topics include the long pre-history of modern economic development; medieval world systems; the age of discovery, the global crisis of the 17th century; demographic systems, global population movements; the industrial revolution, the rise of the modern consumer; colonialism and empire building; patterns of inequality, within and across states; the curse of natural resources fate of Africa; and the threat of climate change to modern economic systems. Students taking graduate version complete additional assignments.

A. McCants

21H.983 Gender

Prereq: None
Acad Year 2017-2018: Not offered
Acad Year 2018-2019: G (Spring)

3-0-9 units

Examines the definition of gender in scientific, societal, and historical contexts. Explores how gender influences state formation and the work of the state, what role gender plays in imperialism and in the welfare state, the ever-present relationship between gender and war, and different states' regulation of the body in gendered ways at different times. Investigates new directions in the study of gender as historians, anthropologists and others have taken on this fascinating set of problems. Open to advanced undergraduates with permission of instructor.

L. Ekmekcioglu, E. Wood

21H.991 Theories and Methods in the Study of History

Subject meets with 21H.390
Prereq: Permission of instructor
G (Fall)
3-0-9 units

Examines the distinctive ways in which historians in different parts of the world have approached the task of writing history. Explores methodologies used, such as political, social, economic, cultural, and popular histories through the reading and discussion of relevant and innovative texts. Introduces a variety of sources (archival documents, statistical data, film, fiction, memoirs, artifacts, and images) and the ways they can be used to research, interpret, and present the past. Assignments include an original research paper. Students taking graduate version complete additional assignments.

C. Capozzola

21H.992 Graduate Independent Study

Prereq: Permission of instructor
G (Fall, Spring)
Units arranged
Can be repeated for credit.

Individual supervised work for students who wish to explore an area of interest in history. Before registering, a student must plan a course of study with a member of the History Faculty and secure approval from the Head of the History Faculty.

Staff

21H.993 Graduate Independent Study

Prereq: Permission of instructor
G (Fall, Spring)
Units arranged
Can be repeated for credit.

Individual supervised work for students who wish to explore an area of interest in history. Before registering, a student must plan a course of study with a member of the History Faculty and secure approval from the Head of the History Faculty.

Staff

21H.999 Teaching History

Prereq: None
G (Fall, Spring)
Units arranged [P/D/F]
Can be repeated for credit.

For qualified graduate students serving as either a teaching assistant or instructor for subjects in History.Enrollment limited by availability of suitable teaching assignments.

Staff